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Nigeria’s new administration has set out on an ambitious reform path to stabilize its currency, regain market confidence, and tame inflation. In this podcast, Governor Olayemi Cardoso and IMF Africa Department head, Abebe Aemro Selassie discuss the role of Nigeria’s central bank in restoring macroeconomic stability. The conversation took place as p…
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Aging populations in many advanced and emerging market economies mean shrinking workforces, weighing on growth. However, the opposite is true in low-income countries where populations are growing, and the expanding workforce may lack the skills for the job market. How can these two scenarios offset each other? Lisa Kolovich says women hold the key.…
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Economic growth is often seen as the core ingredient to social development, but it’s a relatively new idea. So what did pre-growth society look like and how much growth can modern society sustain? In his latest book, Daniel Susskind argues that economic policy should consider the costs of growth more carefully and realign the drivers to better fit …
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Central banks worldwide share common practices in how they operate, but the UK’s central bank is unique in how it makes its rate decisions. Catherine Mann is a Professor of the Practice at Brandeis University and one of four external voting members of the Monetary Policy Committee at the Bank of England. In this podcast, Mann says the pickup in cap…
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It’s no mystery where the IMF was born but its origin story might surprise you. While the spotlight was on the charismatic British economist John Maynard Keynes during the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference, a little-known American economist was working in the shadows. Harry Dexter White’s plan would lead to the creation of the IMF and forever change th…
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While African countries have little to do with what’s causing the climate crisis, they are feeling the brunt of the extreme weather patterns and left footing a climate-mitigation bill they can’t afford. Michael Olabisi is an assistant professor at Michigan State University and studies sustainable development in low-income countries. In this podcast…
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When disaster strikes, the knee-jerk reaction is to seek public funds for support, but private donors have the agility that governments often don’t. And while capital flows to Africa slowed to a trickle during the pandemic, philanthropy and remittances held steady. Una Osili is the Associate Dean for Research and International Programs at Indiana U…
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Conflict disrupts lives and economies everywhere, but recent IMF analytical work suggests the economic impact of conflict in the Middle East and Central Asia has proven larger and more persistent than in other regions. In this podcast, Ghassan Salamé (SciencesPo Paris), Mark Malloch-Brown (Open Society Foundations), and Rola Dashti (UNESCWA) discus…
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The World Economic Outlook is more than projected growth rates. The research behind those projections tells the story of how 190 countries, slowly but steadily, found their way through the fog of the past few years to emerge a testament to the resilience of the global economy. Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas is IMF Chief Economist and brings together the…
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Sub-Saharan Africa is slowly emerging from four turbulent years with higher growth expected for nearly two thirds of countries in the region. But while inflation has almost halved and debt has broadly stabilized, economies are still grappling with financing shortages and impending debt repayments. Wenjie Chen is deputy head of the team that publish…
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As inflation slowly subsides and optimism pervades financial markets, the latest Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR) warns of potential setbacks. Fabio Natalucci and Jason Wu head the GFSR team. In this podcast, they discuss risks associated with debt and the private credit market, struggling real estate sectors in China and the US, cybersecur…
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IMF Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva kicks off the 2024 IMF-World Bank Spring Meetings from the Atlantic Council in Washington, DC, with her customary curtain raiser speech. Go to IMF.org to follow the Spring Meetings and find all the IMF flagship reports, including the World Economic Outlook, the Global Financial Stability Report, and the Fi…
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Even optimal economic policies create winners and losers, and that’s where politics steps in. Trade liberalization is an example of a policy that can make a country better off as a whole, but what happens to workers who lose out to cheaper goods? Jeffry Frieden says while politics is often messy, it’s how society puts a value on things economists c…
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For decades, the standard labor market model has been ruled by supply and demand, but a younger generation of labor economists is questioning that approach. Suresh Naidu is a Professor of Economics and International Public Affairs at Columbia University. He says while the supply and demand model is not wrong, it only tells part of the story. In thi…
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It wasn’t that long ago when retiring in one’s 50s was an achievable goal. But with life expectancy steadily rising and pension systems doomed to fall short, the prospects for an early retirement are fading fast. Olivia Mitchell wrote the book on retirement and modern pension research and has spent her career helping people improve their financial …
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John Maynard Keynes was one of the most influential economists of the 20th century and the father of modern macroeconomics. His novel lectures at King’s College, Cambridge, inspired economists and policymakers of the time and continues to do so a hundred years later. In this podcast, IMF Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva delivers a speech insp…
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Economists build models based on basic assumptions of human behavior. But people are complicated, right? Do Germans who grew up on opposite sides of the Berlin Wall make the same financial decisions today? Ulrike Malmendier is a behavioral economist whose innovative research has shown that experiential learning rewires the brain to make decisions b…
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Countless resources and billions of dollars have been directed at poverty alleviation over the decades and yet almost 10 percent of the world’s population is still struggling to survive... not only in developing countries but in rich countries too. Why do so many anti-poverty efforts fall short? Martin Kalisa says there is more to poverty than inco…
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Industrial policy had its heyday in the 1950s and 60s when governments moved to boost national competitiveness amid burgeoning global trade. Economists have been predicting the return of industrial policy of late- and there’s no question it’s back, but what does today’s industrial policy look like? Michele Ruta is a trade expert at the IMF, and alo…
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Productivity has been the driving force behind the five- sometimes six-day workweek, but there is a growing body of evidence that shows a shorter week is equally, if not more productive in many respects. Juliet Schor is a champion of the four-day week and led the charge in the early 90s with her book The Overworked American, which studies the pitfa…
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Behind any good policy stands good data. And as the global economy becomes increasingly digitalized, effective policy and regulation are critical to ensure a stable and equitable financial system. Jim Tebrake is Deputy Director and heads the data and methodology efforts in the IMF Statistics Department. In this podcast, Tebrake says the world of di…
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Artificial intelligence has the power to transform society in so many ways, but only a small number of companies in an even smaller number of countries hold the keys to AI’s development. So what happens when a narrow swath of humanity makes choices that will impact everyone else? Stephanie Bell is a Senior Research Scientist at the Partnership for …
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Artificial intelligence is changing the way we work and for many it’s scary. But for teachers in India’s million-plus schools, AI is a welcome partner in solving the learning poverty problem. Shankar Maruwada is the Co-founder and CEO of EkStep Foundation, which develops AI to help improve the public education system. In this podcast, Maruwada and …
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The pace at which artificial intelligence is transforming jobs is astounding, but while it boasts higher productivity AI is also increasing wage inequality. When workers are replaced by machines, real wages decline, and the owners of capital prosper. So who owns AI and how should its benefits be distributed? In this podcast, the IMFs Andrew Berg an…
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There’s no question that Artificial Intelligence will increase productivity- but at what cost? What happens when systems out-perform not only factory workers but society’s most esteemed professions? Daniel Susskind has written two thought-provoking books on how AI is changing the nature of work and what tomorrow’s labor market will look like. Sussk…
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Global warming is wreaking havoc on so many levels, but climate action is costly and presents policymakers with difficult tradeoffs. High debt, rising interest rates, and weaker growth prospects make public finances harder to balance and climate goals harder to achieve. This is where fiscal policy and climate mitigation meet and why the IMF Fiscal …
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Carbon pricing is steadily emerging as one of the most viable solutions to reducing global emissions, but shedding its contentious past to build a global consensus is still a work in progress. Economist Ian Parry has championed the idea of carbon pricing long before it was fashionable- or even considered feasible by more than a handful of countries…
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Having access to nature can improve lives. Walking through the forest or by a lake occasionally is proven to have both physical and psychological benefits. But nature is a resource that is undervalued in our economies, and all too often left off the balance sheet. Catherine Kling says determining the true economic value of nature will help foster i…
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The world of money is changing fast and central banks are at the very center of that change. Shaktikanta Das is the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, which is responsible for regulating currency and securing monetary stability for the world’s 5th largest economy. Das is also an innovator and a pioneer when it comes to Central Bank Digital Curr…
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Navigating an economy through multiple crises is not for the faint-hearted. Policy responses must be quick- often with little to go on, and decisions have lasting effects. Nigel Clarke has been Jamaica’s Minister of Finance since 2018 and led its economy through the pandemic as well as devastating natural disasters caused by climate change. In this…
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With the years of access to cheap money behind them and the effects of climate change and geopolitical tensions only getting worse, what does resilience look like for emerging market economies? This year’s Per Jacobbson lecture brings together three influential thinkers to discuss how countries can work towards economic resilience in an era of grea…
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Millions of families around the world- even some countries, rely on workers living abroad to keep their economies afloat. In fact, global remittances reached a record $647 billion in 2022—three times that of official development assistance. Dilip Ratha is lead economist for migration and remittances at the World Bank. In this podcast, journalist Rh…
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Most economies have shown resilience through the steepest series of rate hikes in decades. But inflation remains stubbornly high in some countries, which is proving a challenge for global monetary policy going forward. The latest Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR) examines all the worrying trends including the corporate world’s dwindling cash…
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International cooperation is weakening. The bridges that connect countries are corroding as trade and investment barriers are rising, and Africa stands to suffer the biggest economic losses from severe fragmentation. IMF Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva kicked off the 2023 Annual Meetings in Marrakech with her customary curtain raiser speech …
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A functioning economy provides people with access to credit, insurance, and, among other things, investment opportunities. But what happens in poor communities where they are landless and have no wealth? Eliana La Ferrara says the social structure within those communities offers the collateral they need to make the economy work. La Ferrara is a Pro…
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Credit cards that offer rewards like travel discounts seem a good idea, but rewards cards can be costly for anyone who keeps a running balance. So should there be rules around who gets one? IMF economist Andrea Presbitero is coauthor of a study that looks at the distributional impact of rewards cards. In this podcast, Presbitero says while the high…
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Abdellatif Jouahri est le gouverneur de Banque Al-Maghrib depuis 2003 et l'homme derrière les grandes réformes qui ont fait du Maroc l'une des économies les plus importantes de la région du Moyen-Orient et de l'Afrique du Nord (MENA). Dans cet épisode, Jouahri s'entretient avec Taline Koranchelian, directrice adjointe du Département Moyen-Orient et…
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The dramatic opening up of markets to international trade over the past 30 years has been a boon to many developing economies but it has not benefitted everyone. Nina Pavcnik grew up in Yugoslavia and witnessed firsthand the effects of open markets on the lives of people across the border. Pavcnik is now Professor of Economics and International Stu…
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While import prices account for much of Europe’s inflation, its outlook largely depends on how companies absorb wage gains as higher prices erode workers’ purchasing power. IMF economist Frederik Toscani studies inflation and monetary policy in the Euro Area and is coauthor of a new paper that breaks inflation down into labor costs, import costs, t…
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Nigeria’s eNaira was the first Central Bank Digital Currency in Africa and only the second in the world when it launched in October 2021, but a growing number of countries across the globe are now planning to follow suit with their own CBDCs. What can they learn from Nigeria’s experience? Jookyung Ree is an economist in the IMF African Department a…
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Since their inception in 2008, the contentious rise of crypto assets has been dramatic. Their market value has been as high as $3 trillion and about $50 million is transacted in crypto every day. But what does this brave new world of cryptographically-protected distributed ledgers mean for traditional tax systems? Ruud De Mooij is Deputy Director o…
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The passage of the Inflation Reduction Act in the United States unleashed its largest investment in climate and energy ever. But it also left many countries questioning some of its protectionist provisions, accusing the US of bending, if not breaking international trade rules under the WTO. So how do we move forward on climate without going backwar…
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The history of economics has largely been written by men about men. Even when the economics of family became a burgeoning field of study in the 1970s, the woman’s role was hardly talked about. Claudia Goldin is a pioneer in the field of gender economics and her latest book Career and Family places women squarely at the center of the family economic…
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As rising geopolitical tensions chip away at globalization, will a more fragmented world mean stronger regional pacts? Economist Michele Ruta says regionalism in a time of conflict is unlikely to triumph, but rather is likely to change. The trend toward strengthening ties with friends and loosening them with non-friends is making regional trade les…
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Like so many countries across the Middle East and North Africa, Morocco faced successive shocks over the past three years including a devastating drought. But the country managed well thanks to an aggressive reform agenda. In this podcast, Morocco’s Finance Minister Nadia Fettah, and IMF Regional Director Jihad Azour, discuss how Morocco is keeping…
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Industrial policy refers to a set of policies that governments use to bolster national industries or companies deemed strategically important for economic competitiveness, social outcomes, or national security. The approach has been used in many countries to create global giants like Huawei, General Electric, Volkswagen, and Airbus to name a few. E…
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Agricultural productivity in Africa has lagged behind for decades, and now climate change is making things worse. But for Hamza Rkha Chaham, the prospect of helping African farmers increase crop yields prompted him to launch a startup that is transforming lives. Chaham was only 27 years old in 2018 when he co-founded SOWIT, a company that uses proc…
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The Democratic Republic of the Congo faces many challenges to its development, but the country’s natural wealth has the potential to lift more people out of poverty and help the world make the transition to renewable energy. In this podcast, IMF African Department head Abebe Aemro Selassie sits down with DRC’s Minister of Finance, Nicolas Kazadi to…
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Economists often share a common understanding of the world based on their training and what they’ve learned from other like-minded professionals. In this podcast, author and Financial Times journalist, Gillian Tett says anthropology offers insights into public policy challenges and helps economists better understand socioeconomic problems. IMF Depu…
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Financial stability never comes easy, but the past few months have been especially challenging with persistently high inflation and two bank failures in the United States that exposed vulnerabilities lurking beneath the surface. The latest Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR) examines all the worrying trends including the potential economic imp…
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